There’s great news on the horizon for women in science. The number of female researchers increased across the world from the late 1990s to the early 2010s.  Women account for 38% to 49% of researchers globally with Brazil and Portugal having the largest proportion of female researchers at 49%. The United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Denmark, the European Union, and Australia—all have proportions of female researchers ranging from 40% to 44%. But it’s not all rosy. Female researchers remain a minority in all of the places studied, and on average they publish fewer papers than their male counterparts, which can hinder their future career prospects.  The good news is that research into gender issues continues to grow relatively q...

Currently men dominate the quality control profession making up 66% compared to 34% for women.  A quality assurance (QA) or quality control (QC) inspector works for a company to inspect, test, and sample materials, parts, or products for defects and any deviations from specifications. The inspector will discard anything that does not meet with company standards, including products, materials, and equipment used by the company in processing. Sounds like something a woman could do with her eyes closed.

Adapted from

Mary Callahan, Quality Control Inspector

North Syracuse, New York 1972

Women have fared well in the pharmacy profession. Last year more women were practicing pharmacy or working in a pharmacy-related career than their male counterparts, 83.9% versus 65.2%, respectively. And there were more women in managerial positions than ever before—approximately 29% women and 30% men. Independent pharmacy ownership is still a male-dominated area however. Approximately 2.4% of women in the U.S. are owners or partners in an independent pharmacy. Possible reasons for the lack of female ownership may include financial barriers, lack of business/financial acumen, or lack of confidence in ability to secure financing,

Adapted from

Seventy-four percent of optometry businesses are owned and operated by males. Historical documents from the 1980s reveal that as more women became optometrists owners were worried that customers would shy away from the female optometrist. There was a very real anxiety of those promoting optometry as a profession that a large contingent of women would compromise the prestige and undermine the legitimacy of optometrists as vision care specialists.  Those concerns certainly haven't become realities. 

"The concern that women would damage the profession has been unfounded," Dr. Carlson [first female president of the American Optometry Association and also first woman to lead the North Dakota Optometric Association] says. "Ins...